This article is also available in Deutsch. Researchers identify thousands of genetic variants, many of which can be linked to specific diseases. Induced pluripotent stem cells iPSCs are suitable for discovering the genes that underlie complex and also rare genetic diseases. Tens of thousands of tiny genetic variations SNPs, single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in the human genome that are associated with specific diseases.
Duss Group - Assembly mechanisms of protein–RNA complexes at the single-molecule level - EMBL
RNA interference RNAi , regulatory system occurring within eukaryotic cells cells with a clearly defined nucleus that controls the activity of genes. RNAi functions specifically to silence, or deactivate, genes. Fire and Craig C. Mello , who shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their work. Fire and Mello successfully inhibited the expression of specific genes by introducing short double-stranded RNA dsRNA segments into the cells of nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans. Special microRNA miRNA segments, each of which is approximately 20 nucleotides in length, are encoded by the genomes of eukaryotic organisms. RNAi plays an important role not only in regulating genes but also in mediating cellular defense against infection by RNA viruses, including influenza viruses and rhabdoviruses , a group that contains the causative agent of rabies.
Induced pluripotent stem cells reveal causes of disease
Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA is a molecule you may already be familiar with; it contains our genetic code, the blueprint of life. The order of these bases determines the genetic blueprint, similar to the way the order of letters in the alphabet are used to form words. The mRNA is then transported outside of the nucleus, to the molecular machine responsible for manufacturing proteins, the ribosome. The ribosome assembles a protein in three steps — during initiation, the first step, transfer RNA tRNA brings the specific amino acid designated by the three-letter code to the ribosome. In the second step, elongation, each amino acid is sequentially connected by peptide bonds, forming a polypeptide chain.