Education in Romania is based on a free-tuition, egalitarian system. Access to free education is guaranteed by Article 32 in the Constitution of Romania. Since the downfall of the communist regime , the Romanian educational system has been through several reforms. Kindergarten is optional under the age of five. Compulsory schooling usually starts at age 5, with the last year of kindergarten grupa mare , which is mandatory in order to enter primary school.
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It shares land borders with Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldova to the east, and has its opening to the Black Sea. Modern Romania was formed in through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. The new state, officially named Romania since , gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army 's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and a member of the Warsaw Pact. Romania ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index ,  and is a developing country   with a high-income economy. The vast majority of the population identifies as ethnic Romanian and Eastern Orthodox Christian and are native speakers of Romanian , a Romance language. In English, the name of the country was formerly spelt Rumania or Roumania.